The Ciudad Juarez Femicide Declassification Project

College of DuPage - Geography Department

Since 1993, more than 400 women have been murdered in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico (situated right across the border from El Paso, Texas). Additionally, more than 4,500 women have disappeared. Most of these crimes remain unsolved, and women continue to be murdered and disappear.

College of DuPage Assistant Professor of Geography Keith Yearman has been a longtime activist on the Juarez murders. In 2005, he began a campaign to have State Department and F.B.I. files on the femicide declassified. Some of these files are made available on this website. This page is still under construction...Documents are, for the most part, in chronological order. If you have official documents to contribute to this website, please e-mail me.

I also have collections of documents on Campo Algodonero (the cottonfields) and Cynthia Kiecker.


The Document Collection

Document 1: "Serial Killer Stalks Ciudad Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico to State Department Headquarters. 15 September 1995. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 002267. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

By 1995 the murders of women in Ciudad Juarez garnered enough attention that then-Consul General Larry Colbert sounded the alarm in a cable to Washington. Warning a "serial killer stalks Ciudad Juarez," Colbert added, "post does not intend to comment to the media on this case." Additionally, the Chihuahuan State Judicial Police "have requested assistance from the FBI office in El Paso, Texas with the investigation." Colbert's warning apparently went unheeded.

Document 2: "Complaint Report." El Paso Police Department. Case: 95-136089. 16 May 1995. Source: Public Information Act release to Keith Yearman.

The State Judicial Police could not identify a victim, so they sent her fingerprints to the El Paso Police Department to check systems in the U.S. All systems, including the FBI, came back negative, as noted in the Supplement Report.

Document 3: "Christmas Day Murder in Juarez of Amcit Laura Anne Inere." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 10 January 1996. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 000103. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

When Laura Anne Inere was gunned down on Christmas Day 1995, it was up to two Foreign Service Nationals at the consulate to work – uncompensated – in helping her survivors. Allegedly gunned down by a Juarez police officer and a female accomplice, “Inere's family later indicated a history of drug involvement and their own suspicions she might be selling drugs to support herself...[The Consulate is] monitoring progress of the criminal case.” When it came to helping Inere's family, the U.S. government failed, having ceased normal operations during a budget dispute. A January 10, 1996 cable from Consul General Larry Colbert details the State Department's failure, while offering high praise for individuals who volunteered their service:

“No post vehicle was available to assist the family: A recent accident to an official vehicle and lack of funds for repairs have severely hindered [American Citizen Services] operations, including prison visits and assistance in death cases. In this instance Consular Assistant Adriana Chacon generously volunteered to drive the family in her personal vehicle…The extensive and compassionate assistance provided by [the FSNs and a Deputy Consul] to this bereaved family is an example of the professionalism and service which consular employees provide Americans… The assistance was provided just after these employees had been informed that they would not be paid for their work due to the lack of an appropriation.”

Document 4: "Crime and Violence on Rise in Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 6 March 1997. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 000596. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Then-Consul General Larry Colbert writes, "In general, people accept the reality that there is a growing crime problem. They simply do not like to deal with the ugly truth that Juarez faces all of the same social ills that big cities all over the world must deal with - its halcyon days as a relatively crime-free small town are over."

Document 5: "Two American Women Found Murdered in Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 03 October 1996. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 002402. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Sisters Rita Parker Barragan and Victoria Parker were shot execution-style on September 29, 1995. Taken to a motorcycle racetrack, they were both shot several times in the back of their heads. It appears the US Consulate did little in this case, as suggested by a cable from Colbert: “Press reports suggest the women may have defaulted on a drug deal; it appears unlikely any suspects will be identified or arrested.” No additional documents have been released to suggest any consular actions.

Document 6: "Violence Against Women - A Growing Political Issue." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 9 December 1997. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 1377. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"Women's organizations marched through the streets of Juarez, Chihuahua City, Delicias and Parral, protesting the 97 cases of raped, tortured and murdered women that have occurred, mainly in Ciudad Juarez, during the last four years...PRD member, Esther Chavez, claimed that crimes against women are often minimized. Chavez stated that police generally take the easy way out, and simply accuse boyfriends, husbands, or any other convenient male relative, of the offense."

Document 7: "Governor Barrio Opens a Special Office to Combat Violence Against Women." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 23 February 1998. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 0414. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

After the December protests, a group of Mexican congressmen visited Juarez. "Shortly after their departure, however, the skeletal remains of two more women who disappeared over a year ago were found...The body of a third rape victim was found about the same time at the city dump...Governor Barrio, in the face of mounting pressures and more victims, has finally bowed to the demands of 'Women for Juarez' and has announced a new special office to combat violence against women.

Document 8: "Conference on Public Safety." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 2 June 1998. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 1093. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"A growing sense that a public safety crisis exists in Ciudad Juarez has been caused by a number of factors, including: The rape and murder of at least 100 young women over the past few years..."

Document 9: "Inauguration of Chihuahua Governor: The Return of the PRI." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 13 October 1998. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2361. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"Chihuahua Governor Patricio Martinez Garcia was inaugurated on October 3, marking the Institutional Revolutionary Party's (PRI) return to pwer in Chihuahua...The main theme of Martinez's inauguration address was public security, which had been his major campaign issue. He focused particularly on Ciudad Juarez, pledging action on the cases of more than one hundred young women who have been murdered in Juarez over the past give years."

Document 10: "Chihuahua Governor Fights GOM Over Vehicles; Maquila Tax to Fight Crime." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 01 June 1999. Cable Number: Mexico 004972. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Ambassador Jeffrey Davidow met with Chihuahua Governor Patricio Martinez on May 28, 1999. During the meeting "Martinez stated that the incidence of murders of women in Ciudad Juarez had greatly declined during his administration...According to Martinez, he inherited eighty unresolved murders, of which twenty are now closed...Of sixteen murders during his tenure, fifteen have been resolved...When questioned by the Ambassador about the payroll tax Chihuahua has levied on maquiladoras, Martinez suggested that revenue from the measure goes directly to crime fighting and prevention. Martinez added that while owners do not like the additional tax, most will opt to stay in the state."

Document 11: "Significant Drug/Crime News: 5/20-5/27/99." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 9 June 1999. Cable Number: Mexico 005261. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

This collection of news stories from the Mexico City press contains several paragraphs about the May 22, 1999 shooting of Eduardo Rivas in Ciudad Juarez. "Rivas' mother, Irene Blanco, is the defense attorney for Abdel Latiff Shariff [sic] who is accused of murdering several young women in the Ciudad Juarez area. She reported receiving threatening phone calls and blamed the authorities for the attack on her son. Blanco further maintained that the Chihuahua State Attorney General's office was harboring someone who was involded in the infamous murders of young women in the area. ('Reforma,' May 23)"

Document 12: "UN Rapporteur to Visit Mexico." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 6 July 1999. Cable Number: Mexico 006073. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

The UN's Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, Asma Jahangir, was dispatched to southern Mexico in July 1999. NGOs requested Jahangir visit Juarez to, according to this Embassy cable, "investigate the 187 reported murders of young women, most of whom worked in the city's in-bond industries (maquiladoras). The majority of those murders, the earliest of which date back to 1993, have gone unsolved."

Document 13: "The UN Rapporteur's Visit to Mexico." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 29 July 1999. Cable Number: Mexico 006896. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"In an emotional meeting on July 15 in Mexico City...relatives of four of these victims shared their testimonies with Jahangir. Afterwards, expressing her profound anxiety at the sexist observations made by some officials, she stated that it was time governments realized that this is unacceptable, and that women will not tolerate it any more. In addition, Jahangir said she would speak to the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women about what she had learned in Mexico...While it is likely that the GOM expected to receive criticism from the UN Special Rapporteur, Jahangir's strong, straight-forward public criticisms of Mexican politics and administration of justice appeared to be an unpleasant surprise to her Mexican hosts...Jahangir's blunt comments and what is expected to be a highly critical report may cause the GOM to rethink its invitation to UN Human Rights Commissioner Mary Robinson to visit Mexico this fall."

Document 14: "Security in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 27 September 1999. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2336. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

The state and city governments released statistics showing crime was decreasing in Juarez. "The murders of approximately 200 women - many of whom were young maquiladora workers - in Juarez since 1993 continue to draw international attention. But since the arrest of several local bus drivers in March, such attacks have all but ceased."

Document 15: "Death of Amcit: Blanca Estela Vazquez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 22 October 1999. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2579. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

The shooting death of Blanca Estela Vazquez, a naturalized U.S. citizen who had been living in Juarez for five years, brought little-to-no response from the Consulate. Killed on October 19, 1999, the Consulate monitored press reports for several days:

“During the last few days, the local press publicized that Mrs. Vazquez was the owner of a massage parlor with a bad reputation for involvement in criminal activities. However, police deny that information. Remains were found at ‘Lote Bravo,' a place where the bodies of other murdered women have been found in the past…According to [next-of-kin], victim was a drug dealer. She was also reportedly the girlfriend of a known drug dealer who was released from prison just one day before her murder.”

Document 16: "Juarez Greets Graveyards Discovery with Muted Shock and Embarrassment." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 30 November 1999. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2991. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"Mexican Federal Police, aided by the Mexican military and the FBI's El Paso office, sealed off and began exhuming human remains from two clandestine graveyards south of Ciudad Juarez on Monday November 29. The graveyards are the presumed dumping grounds for many of the 200 people who have disappeared over the past six years, presumptive victims of Juarez' drug wars...The families of those disappeared, and perhaps awaiting discovery in these graveyards, are undergoing an awful vigil, and there are at least 11 and perhaps 16 US citizens among the potential victims."

Document 17: "FBI Director Visits Juarez as Gravesite Exhumations Continue Their Grim Routine." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 3 December 1999. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 3073. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

This cable concerns a joint visit to the gravesites by Louie Freeh, Mexico's Attorney General, the governor of Chihuahua and the mayor of Juarez.

Document 18: "Juarez' 'Dignity' March Fizzles." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 21 December 1999. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 3259. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

After the discovery of mass graves in Juarez (some of which contained the bodies of FBI informants), a joint-FBI and Mexican government investigation drew sharp criticism in the Mexican press. A December 18, 1999 protest march for “Dignity for Juarez” drew only several hundred participants, and drew the cynical attention of then-Consul General Edward G. Vazquez. In a cable to State Department headquarters, he wrote, “Our soundings prior to the march showed a clear lack of unanimity on the theme of Juarez aggrieved. The business community is the driving force behind what indignation is felt, and they are motivated primarily by the drop off in cross border tourism which they blame on accounts of the grave sites in the US press.”

Of importance to Vazquez, “The governor's Secretary General and a PRI councilwoman from Juarez called the consulate to tell us that there would be no anti-American rhetoric at the rally, and there was in fact none.”

Document 19: "Arrests: [Excised]." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 3 January 2000. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 0107. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

A minor US citizen living in Juarez was arrested January 7, 2000 for a drive-by shooting in downtown Juarez back on April 5, 1998. There was a complaint of a police beating, though doctors in the prison disputed this allegation. I have filed an additional Freedom of Information Act request concerning this arrest.

Document 20: "1999 Homicide Rates in Juarez Released, Disputed." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 20 January 2000. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 0189. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Then-Consul General Edward Vazquez shared a skeptical view of crime statistics reported by the city government. According to Vazquez,

"Another community leader [of] Women for Juarez, challenges the city's 1999 figures for disappeared women...[She] claims that last year over thirty women disappeared and are still missing with city police yet to fully investigate. The special state attorney for crimes against women, Zulema Ponce, counters that her division solved over 95% of its disappearance cases. Ponce claims that on average 560 women disappear annually and that last year virtually all of them were safely returned to their families. The 1999 statistics for homicides committed against women are, however, difficult to verify. According to state figures obtained only after post's repeated requests, there were 18 homicides involving women in 1999 with 15 of these cases allegedly solved...Almost all observers agree that approximately 200 women have been murdered in Juarez since 1993. Of these 200, fewer than half, 87, of these cases have been reported solved by the state police...The accuracy of the recently released crime statistics are difficult to confirm and subject to manipulation by various interested parties."

Document 21: "Violence Against Women in Ciudad Juarez - An Update." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City (originated with US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez) to State Department Headquarters. 14 March 2000. Cable Number: Mexico 2371. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

This is a corrected copy of a cable originating with the Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez (I have been told by the State Department's FOIA office that the original copy no longer exists. This is important as the corrected/retransmitted copy bears the name of Ambassador Jeff Davidow instead of the Consul General).. In it, then-Consul General Edward H. Vazquez discusses a "ten-month respite" from the murders in 1999. "The year 2000 was newly arrived when again women began to disappear in Juarez only to be found murdered in the surrounding desert areas. The new discoveries broke a ten-month lull in killings and wakened fears that the murders of women have resumed. (More than 200 since 1993)." Vazquez discusses the Sagrario Gonzalez case and Suly Ponce's history as special prosecutor. The cable contains an interesting passage near the end:

"What is clear, however, is the vulnerability of the social class in which most of the murders have occured. These women come from a group that is physically, socially and economically frail. They are made more vulnerable through a cultural upbrining that reinforces their sense of personal inferiority and resulting submissiveness."

Document 22: "Recent Executions in Ciudad Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 16 March 2000. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 1106. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

A listing of executions in Juarez from January 1, 2000. Included are the March 11 killing of Alejandra del Castillo Holguin, and the March 12 killing of Berenice Ortiz Gomez. "Arturo Gonzalez Rascon, state prosecutor (PGJE), said that the recent killings of two women this weekend may be linked to drug traffickers."

Document 23: "Overturned Sentence in Women's Murders Reignites Juarez Controversy." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 11 April 2000. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 1512. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Sharif Sharif's 30-year sentence in the killing of Elizabeth Castro Garcia was nullified "based on the lack of consistency in the autopsy results." Then-Consul General Edward Vazquez noted cynically, "Even though Sharif has been detained since 1996, women's homicides continue on the rise in the area, embarrassing local law enforcement officials and causing women's groups to doubt the authorities [sic] commitment to solving the crimes."

Document 24: "Project Proposals to Assist Victims of Violence Against Women and Children in Mexico." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 28 April 2000. Cable Number: Mexico 003997. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

As of this cable, the embassy put the number of murdered women at 208. "These women are often poor uneducated migrants from other regions in Mexico who come to Juarez for the economic opportunity of industrial employment but once there confront social isolation, problems finding adequate and affordable housing and childcare, and often non-existent police protection. Their often limited education and traditional up-bringing (in a 'macho' society) cause them to accept domestic violence, social domination, and - in the extreme - makes them vulnerable to sexual assault and homicide by sociopaths and sexual predators in the communities where they reside."

The embassy recommended funding a $25,000 program through Esther Chavez Cano's Casa Amiga, a crisis center in Juarez. The program would allow expansion of Casa Amiga's work to additional victims and to include police training.

Document 25: "Insecurity in Juarez, Fact or Fiction?" Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 06 July 2000. Cable Number: Mexico 005927. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"A recent execution style killing of two women at a convience [sic] store located in one of the better neighborhoods of the city served as a dour reminder that crime knows no socio-economic boundaries...State police authorities claim this particular murder was a crime of passion, believing that the victims were lovers killed by some other jilted lover."

Document 26: "Growing Civic Movement in Juarez." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 27 October 2000. Cable Number: Mexico 9416. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Embassy officials visited Juarez in early October 2000. While in Juaerz, they met with Esther Chavez Cano of Casa Amiga. Chavez "noted that a four-person household would need to earn about $8,000 pesos ($800 USD) a month to support minimal living conditions. However, the average monthly wage in a maquiladora is only about $1600 pesos...According to numerous NGO sources, despite nearly full employment, wages in Ciudad Juarez have remained low due in part to the constant arrival of new migrants and more women entering the workforce." The officials then met with Suly Ponce. "Ponce explained that migrants arriving in Ciudad Juarez usually end up living in dangerous shantytowns, without the local customs, strong family connections, and support networks they left back home."

Document 27: "Recent Murders and Disappearances of Women Fit Old Pattern." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 9 November 2000. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 5266. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Then-Consul General Vazquez wrote this cable following the highly-publicized disappearance of a college student. He also discussed another disappearance and the October 12 discovery of remains on the outskirts of Juarez. He also discussed "recent police actions, such as rousting patrons at scores of bars and nightclubs in the hope of finding some of the missing women working as prostitutes, seem motivated more by the need to be seen to be taking some action, rather than based on any evidence or reasonable theory."

Document 28: "New Spate of Narco-Killings in Ciudad Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 4 May 2001. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 3981. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"The bloody war for control of drug trafficking in Ciudad Juarez has resumed in earnest with thirteen new killings in the past month...April 30 saw a triple murder on the outskirts of the city. Jorge Martinez, age 34, and two young women, 18-year old Laura Marquez-Valenzuela and her 16-year old sister, Flor Idalia Marquez-Valenzuela, were found shot to death in a car in a field. Martinez had served time on a drug-related charge. Both the mother and aunt of the two girls are currently in jail on drug charges...If there is any good news to be gleaned from recent events it may reside in the relative paucity of violence during two periods of time when a contingent of 600 Federal Preventive Police were dispatched to Juarez to assist with street patrols. As soon as they were withdrawn, however, the killings resumed."

Document 29: "Crimes Against Women in Ciudad Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 18 May 2001. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 4296. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Discusses the murder of Lilia Alejandra Garcia-Andrade, NGO calls for the resignation of Suly Ponce Prieto. "The fact that most of the victims have been employees of multinational maquiladora plants has caused some critics to invoke globalization as the root cause of the crimes. They argue that the presence of the multinationals in Juarez has attracted thousands of young women from other areas of Mexico who, lacking their home town family and social networks, are extremely vulnerable to sexual predators."

Document 30: "Death Haunts Juarez Women Again." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 7 November 2001. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2018. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

The night of November 6, the bodies of three young women were discovered at Campo Algodonero, a cottonfield across the street from the headquarters of AMAC, the maquiladora association. Hours later, an additional five bodies were discovered at the same location. "At least one of the victims has been identified, but the decomposition of the remaining bodies will require dental & DNA testing for positive identification. In February 2001, Lilia Alejandra Garcia, a young maquila worker, was found murdered just 100 meters away from where these bodies were found. At that time, the murder of Ms. Garcia was considered an isolated assault rather than a serial murder case...Local officials have been claiming a measure of success in stopping these vicious murders by citing the drop in sexual murders this year. Unfortunately this latest discovery shows the problem is far from solved." The consulate had also been contacted by the father of a missing American citizen who feared his daughter may have been one of the victims.

Document 31: "Update on Juarez Womenqs [sic] Homicides and Missing Amcit." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 8 November 2001. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2145. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Continued discussion of Campo Algodonero. "Clothing from one of the victims has been identified as belonging to Caludia Ivette Gonzalez, 20, who disappeared on October 10 after leaving work at a Lear Corporation twin plant. Authorities are doing DNA and odontological testing to positively establish if the victim is indeed Claudia Ivette Gonzalez." Regarding the missing American citizen whose father contacted the consulate, "In light of the estimated time of death for the unidentified victims established by the state judicial police authorities, the possibility of [her] being a victim is remote."

Document 32: "Two Bus Drivers Arrested in the Women's Homicides Case." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 13 November 2001. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2294. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

El Cerillo and La Foca (Victor Javier Garcia Uribe and Gustavo Gonzalez Meza) were arrested and charged with the murders of the women found at Campo Algodonero. They claimed they were kidnapped by PGJE agents and tortured, beaten and burned with cigarettes to force confessions.

Document 33: "Security/Safety in Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 6 February 2002. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 1643. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"For many years, women's serial homicides in Juarez have been an issue. In 2001, there was a 12 percent increase in women's homicides from last year's statistics. 27 women were murdered in Juarez, 9 of them were sexually assaulted and are believed to be the victims of a serial murderer...In 2002, President Fox ordered that the Federal Attorney General's office (PGR) in Juarez assist in solving serial women's homicides in Juarez. The PGR has dedicated two district attorneys to review the work of the PGJE investigations. Since homicide is considered a state crime, the PGR will only act in an advisory capacity and will not intervene in arrests or further investigation. Over 70 cases are being reviewed and recommendations are to be issued on a weekly basis."

Document 34: "Juarez Attorney Dies While Chased By Police." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 8 February 2002. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 1888. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"A Juarez attorney, Mario Escobedo, 29, was shot to death on February 5 while being chased by State Judicial Police agents. Escobedo was the attorney for one of the bus drivers recently accused in the women's homicides in Juarez [Gustavo Gonzalez Meza, La Foca]. On February 6, Jesus 'Chito' Solis, state Attorney General, stated Escobedo died from injuries received in the creash. The autopsy report revealed Escobedo did from a gunshot wound to the head. While police maintain Escobedo fired at them during the chase, the victim's father, along with numerous other political figures and NGOs, charge that it was a state assassination."

Document 35: "Violence in Ciudad Juarez Claims Center Stage." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 12 February 2002. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 1968. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

The Special Rapporteur of the OAS's Inter-American Human Rights Commission visited Juarez, "to look into allegations by victim's families and NGOs that the state's handling of the murders of women in Cd. Juarez constitutes a human rights violation...While acknowledging the cooperation she received from the officials, which included written reports and files on the cases, she was also critical of the police and state officials for their blaming of murder victims in attributing the attacks to their provacative lifestyles and manner of dress and for 'disrespect' these same officials had shown to the families of many of the victims."

Document 36: "Continued Crime and Protests in Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 18 March 2002. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 3628. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"On March 6, Hector Javier Leal Jimenez, a PFP officer, and his female companion were executed on the Pan-American Highway in Juarez. According to police sources, Leal might have been executed as an act of retaliation for his involvement in a recent seizure of 180 kilos of marijuana."

The cable discusses a March 8 protest blocking the international bridge, in which two Texas legislators took part. "In a simultaneous event on the same date, women started a 360-kilometer march to protest the continued murders of women in Juarez and the lack of interest shown by the authorities...In response to the accusations made by NGOs and protesters, on March 14, state government authorities ran a large ad in the local newspaper called 'The Truth About Women's Homicides in Juarez.' In this ad, authorities state there have only been 76 serial women's homicides in Juarez since 1992."

Document 37: "Latest on Juarez Women's Homicides." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 6 May 2002. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 6117. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"In November 2001, state authorities found the remains of eight more women dumped in a dried cotton field ditch...DNA testing on the eight victims was requested from the Federal Attorney General's office (PGR)...On April 27, NGO representatives contacted PGR authorities to request a follow-up on the DNA testing of the victims. Surprisingly, PGR authorities informed them DNA results had been sent to the Chihuahua state authorities (PGJE) on April 17. PGR authorities reported none of the victims were identified through DNA testing. ON April 28, PGJE spokesman stated no DNA results had been received. On April 29, the Deputy State Attorney General in Juarez, Elfego Bencomo, stated instead that they had received preliminary results on three bodies and only one was negative. Yet another story emerged on April 30, when the Chief of Forensics of the PGJE, Alejandro Alberto Santos, stated two of the bodies that were DNA tested were compared to the relatives of three alleged victims with negative results and no further results had been provided by PGR."

Document 38: "Texas Newspaper Highlights Womenqs [sic] Murders Cases." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 24 June 2002. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 8659. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

The Consulate's Administrative Officer, Kathy Johnson-Casares, fired off a cable concerning El Paso Times' coverage of the Juarez murders, particularly June 23-24 articles. Noting these articles were the largest to date, "on the whole nothing has really changed. Absent enhanced political will to use additional law enforcement resources (possibly from both sides of the border), the situation is likely to remain the same."

Document 39: "Event Form." Office of the First Lady (Anita Perry). 13 September 2002. Source: Public Information Act release to Keith Yearman.

Texas First Lady Anita Perry was going to meet with the Coalition Againt Violence Toward Women and Children on the Border at the University of Texas-El Paso. This is a copy of the event planning form.

Related: "Chronology of the Coalition Against Violence Toward Women and Families at the U.S.-Mexico Border." Undated. Source: Public Information Act release to Keith Yearman.

Related: Untitled Event Agenda and Handwritten Notes. 13 September 2002. Source: Public Information Act release to Keith Yearman. Anita Perry apparently took notes on the back of her copy of the meeting's agenda. Note she wrote "Criminal Justice Div. Atty General's Office." On the second page of handwritten notes, "Need CJD to get involved - ask Jay Kimbrough." PIA Requests to the Attorney General's Office have turned up no responsive documents - it appears nothing substantive resulted.

Related: Untitled Thank You Letter to Anita Perry. 19 September 2002. Source: Public Information Act release to Keith Yearman. Letter sent to Anita Perry from Victor Munoz and Irasema Coronado of the Coalition.

Related: Untitled Letter from Anita Perry. 24 September 2002. Source: Public Information Act release to Keith Yearman. Letter sent from Anita Perry to Irasema Coronado. "As a woman and as a mother, I am haunted by the atrocities against so many women - so many whose mothers have no answers...My office will look into the possibility of a briefing so other branches of the Governor's Office may be apprised of the situation with the hope of working toward a solution."

Document 40: "DNA Tests Complicate Womenqs [sic] Homicides Investigations in Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 8 November 2002. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 4545. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Of the bodies discovered at Campo Algodonero, only that of Veronica Martinez Hernandez was positively identified through DNA testing. "The results also confirm that two victims supposedly previously identified were not among the bodies found in the cotton field, since the DNA from relatives of those two women did not match any of the DNA from the remains found...It now appears that two families buried the bodies of unknown individuals instead of their relatives."

"In October 2002, the remains of a 13-year-old girld were found in the Cerro del Cristo Negro area of Juarez. On October 28, less than a half kilometer from where that girl's remains were found, PGJE found the remains of an unidentified 18 to 20 year-old woman. Authorities have not yet released further information about these two cases and no arrests have been made."

Document 41: "Human Rights Roundup for December 2002/January 2003." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 3 February 2003. Cable Number: Mexico 000969. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Brief discussion of the National Human Rights Commission (CNDH) which announced it would be opening an investigation into the Juarez murders and opening an office in Juarez. Also mentions a campaign to free El Cerillo and La Foca.

Document 42: "The Murdered Women in Ciudad Juarez - Fact and Fiction" (Corrected Copy). Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 12 February 2003. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2684. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Document 43: "The Murdered Women in Ciudad Juarez - Fact and Fiction" (Original Version). Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 12 February 2003. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 2684. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Then-Consul General Maurice S. Parker attempts to "clarify" the number of victims, while taking NGOs and the press to task:

"Since the early 1990s approximately 80 young, poor women have been raped and killed by one or more serial murderers in the greater metropolitan area of Ciudad Juarez. These tragic events have received extensive international media coverage and tremendous attention from NGO's, state and federal legislators in the U.S. and the Special Rapporteur of the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. While 80 deaths represent a horrific figure, from our count at post, the actual number of deaths caused by a suspected serial killer(s) in Ciudad Juarez does not approach the 270-340 figure hyped by some media outlets and NGO's. It is true that approximately 300 women have been killed in this city over the last decasde, but most were victims of domestic violence, while others were lost in the gruesome body county in the ongoing drug war. The local press is responsible for perpetuating the inaccurate body count, because escalating numbers sell newspapers. NGO's accept and use these inflated numbers to bring this issue to the attention of the world."

"Before the 1990's, sources indicate that there were a handful of murdered women annually in Ciudad Juarez, less than in U.S. cities of similar size at the time. Then the serial type killing began, accompanied by a rise in domestic violence."

Document 44: "Latest Developments in Juarez Women's Homicides." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 27 February 2003. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 3692. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Sharif was now sentenced to a 20-year term. "Police are now investigating the deaths of three young women whose bodies were found in northwest Juarez in an area called Cerro del Cristo Negro on February 17, 2003...These last three victims had been reported missing by relatives over a nine-month period from a three-block area in downtown Juarez. One of them was a student at ECCO Computer School. In the last three years, at least seven women with some affiliation with ECCO have disappeared or been found murdered."

Document 45: "Approved Crime Report Inquiry." El Paso Police Department. Case: 03-108101. 17 April 2003. Source: Public Information Act release to Keith Yearman.

The El Paso Police Department was asked to cross into Mexico to assist with a murder investigation. "Personnel from Crimes Against Persons and Crime Scene Unit provided assistance."

Document 46: "Drug Related Executions." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 25 July 2003. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 3938. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"On July 23 authorities found three young women murdered execution-style. The women had been missing for three days after traveling with the husband of one of them, Felipe Jeszs [sic] Macado, for a trip to the sand dunes in the Valle de Juarez, across from Fabens, TX. Machado has disappeared and his burned up pickup was found. He remains the main suspect. Police authorities believe the crime was drug related as Machado had a drug-trafficking record in the U.S."

Document 47: "NODEL Solis (Oct 11 - 13)." Cable from State Department Headquarters to US Embassy in Mexico City. 9 October 2003. Cable Number: State 288537. Source: Freedom of Information Act request (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman. A planning document for the October 11-13 delegation to Juarez led by Representative Hilda Solis.

Document 48: "New Commissioner for Juarez Murders." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 18 December 2003. Cable Number: Mexico 010502. Source: Freedom of Information Act request (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

In this heavily-excised cable, a breakfast meeting between the embassy's Pol itical Officer, the Mexico Desk Officer (Roberta S. Jacobson), and the new federal commissioner for the Juarez Murders (Guadalupe Morfin) is discussed. "She has a staff of 12, but not enough computers or copiers, and her telephone lines were not working properly. It is apparent that her office is underfunded. She hinted that any assistance USG could provide by way of office equipment would be welcome. Other than producing a report, her responsibilities remain unclear."

Document 49: "EACT FW: Federal Police Take Charge of Public Safety in Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 23 October 2003. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 011543. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

The Federal Preventive Police moved 770 officers into Juarez and take control of the city's policing.

Document 50: "Crimes Against Humanity in Ciudad Juarez." Cable from US Consulate General in Monterrey to US Embassy in Madrid, US Embassy in Mexico City, US Mission to the United Nations, and State Department Headquarters. 4 November 2003. Cable Number: Monterrey 001588. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Baltasar Garzon, the Spanish judge who pursued Chilean dictator Pinochet for crimes against humanity, gave a speech in Monterrey in which he "called for changes in the handling of the decade-old case of over 300 unresolved murders of young women in Ciudad Juarez. He argued the specific nature of the crime raises it to a crime against humanity, possibly prosecutable in the ICC. The judge stated clearly that this case should be under the jurisdiction of federal investigators, and predicted that better investigative work could have major ramifications."

According to Consul General John A. Ritchie, "Rumors surrounding who is to blame range from the negative social effects of NAFTA and rampant corruption south of the border to greedy American maquiladora owners and pathological Mexican elites. The tales have only increased in number and grown wilder in content on both sides of the border as the killings continue."

Document 51: "Special Prosecutor Named for Juarez Murders." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 30 January 2004. Cable Number: Mexico 000762. Source: Freedom of Information Act request (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Mariz Lopez Urbina was named by the federal government to investigate the Juarez murders. "It remains to be seen whether the appointment of a new prosecutor will simply create another layer of bureaucracy, or actually improve the quality of investigations. While its database may prove effective to correlate information, without the constitutional authority to prosecute more cases, it is doubtful the federal government can make a significant difference to the resolution of over 300 Juarez murders."

Document 52: "EACT FW: Murdered and Missing Women of Ciudad Juarez Draw International Protest." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 20 February 2004. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 002746. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Discussion of the February 13-15, 2004 V-Day protest. Then-Consul General Maurice Parker held a pre-protest reception at his residence. "Conspicuously absent from this reception were all invited guests from the Chihuahua state government."

Document 53: "EACT FW: Commissioner Morfin Discusses Efforts to Prevent Violence Against Women." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 9 March 2004. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 003789. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Just prior to the V-Day protests, Guadalupe Morfin met then-Consul General Maurice Parker. "Morfin opened the meeting by explaining that President Fox and Interior Minister Santiago Creel have the political will to confront the issue of womens' homicides in Juarez but not enough money in the budget. (Note: At this point her office is largely ceremonial and dependent on the largesse of existing federal agencies for any resources...Morfin has been handed responsibilities with no budget...)."

Document 54: "Doubts Regarding the Existence of a PGR DNA Bank." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 9 March 2004. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 003787. Source: Freedom of Information Act request (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"On February 25, Ms. Lopez Urbina held a press conference to announce the inauguration of a DNA bank in her office. The concept of a DNA bank, to establish the genetic relationship between the victims and family members of women murdered in Ciudad Juarez over the past 10 years, was introduced by U.S. Representative Hilda Solis during her visit to this border town in October 2003. Consul General Parker, accompanied by Conoff Judith Ravin and PD Assistant Patricia Munoz, visited Special Prosecutor Lopez Urbina in her office to learn more about the DNA bank.

"Due to the limited laboratory equipment at the disposal of the PGR in Ciudad Juarez, Ms. Lopez Urbina was asked which forensic processes were employed by the PGR to identify the remains of two of the 14 female victims that were reported recently in the local press? She responded by cutting-off the line of questioning, by stating that she needed permission from the Directorate of International Legal Affairs (DGALI) before providing any additional information."

Document 55: "GOM Report on the Ciudad Juarez Murders." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to All US Consulates in Mexico and State Department Headquarters. 4 June 2004. Cable Number: Mexico 004359. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Guadalupe Morfin and Maria Lopez Urbina presented their reports. "Morfin's report was general in nature and appealed for her commission to be strengthened. Lopez Urbina's report was more specific and cited 81 public officials in Chihuahua for negligence in investigating the cases."

Document : "Womens Homicides: Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team Visits Chihuahua - Women's Homicides." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 25 June 2004. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 008985. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-05-180) to Keith Yearman.

The Forensic Anthropology Team of Argentina (who investigated the El Mozote massacre, amongst other cases) visited Chihuahua at the behest of Guadalupe Morfin and the Commission for the Defense and Promotion of Human Rights. The team also met with consulate and FBI officials. "According to their preliminary analysis, there is a need to correctly identify the remains of a maximum of 50 victims...After reviewing some of the cases and the official lists, the [team] believes that only 40 victims still need to be identified by the use of forensic anthropology."

Document 56: "Maquilas, Security, and Corporate Social Responsibility." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 17 August 2004. Cable Number: Mexico 006353. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"No other area of Mexico has reported the security problems plaguing Ciudad Juarez's maquila workers, perhaps because the maquila worker force in Ciudad Juarez is largely migrant whereas in other areas the workers can draw on family support to keep them out of bad situations (Embassy's economic section reports, through interviews, that 75% of the maquila work force is female with an average age of 24 years). However, other border towns with high migrant populations, such as Tijuana, do not face the same situation as Ciudad Juarez. This indicates that the personal security problems faced by women maquila workers in Ciudad Juarez go beyond workplace issues...

"The maquilas are also taking steps to increase security, such as offering transportation to and from the maquilas. Although this does not address security between the drop-off point and where the person actually lives, it has helped...Other examples of heightened security awareness include making salary payments via direct deposit, doing background checks for the drivers that take the employees to and from work, providing security awareness classes, and anonymous suggestion boxes to register complaints."

Document 57: "President Fox Meets With Juarez Maquila Leaders." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 22 September 2004. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 013021. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"President Vicente Fox spent a morning in Ciudad Juarez as part of a border tour, and spoke at an event highlighting the local maquiladora industry. Speakers by and large stayed positive, avoiding any direct criticism of the administration. However, a local maquiladora leader directly raised the issue of the women's murders in Ciuda Juarez, pleading for security assistance. President Fox acknowledged the issue, and said that his new budget proposes to double the funding for security in the city."

Document 58: "Istanbul Protocol Results: 'El Cerillo' Was Tortured." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 5 October 2004. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 013495. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"During an October 1 meeting between post and the office of Commissioner Guadalupe Morfin, Morfin's deputy Francisco Fierro received a call notifying him that the Istanbul Protocol procedures applied in the case of Victor Garcia Uribe, alias El Cerillo, resulted in a positive finding of torture."

Document 59: "Juarez Murders: El Cerillo Found Guilty Despite Istanbul Protocol Results." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 15 October 2004. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 013961. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Victor Garcia Uribe was convicted of the Campo Algodonero killings, and sentenced to 50 years.

Document 60: "GOM Issues Second Report on Ciudad Juarez Murders." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 27 October 2004. Cable Number: Mexico 008311. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Lopez Urbina issued her second report, accusing an additional 49 public officials of negligence. "Although she did not give names, she said this number includes prosecutors, crime scene investigators, public ministers, and judicial police. She said the most basic forensic procedures were not followed by law enforcement officials investigating the majority of the 155 murders under review by her office."

Document 61: "Juarez Women's Murders Pull More Politicians Into the Vortex." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 27 October 2004. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 014445. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"Evidence does not point to American citizens being part of the serial murders. Rather, the American female murders appear to have been committed as a result of narco-involvement or other incident-specific motives."

"Since January of this year, just prior to U.S. Congresswoman Hilda Solis's February visit to Ciudad Juarez for "V-Day" Violence Against Women protests, a total of fifteen women have been found murdered in the state of Chihuahua...A suspect is being held in relation to the rape, murder, and stoning of an adolescent girl whose corpse was found in an abandoned house of a residential neighborhood of Juarez on October 23, 2004...The Fiscalia Mixta continues its efforts to identify another female corpse, found on October 6, 2004, near the Rio Grande, alongside a dried-up irrigation ditch, in Juarez. The autopsy revealed that the woman had been raped, then strangled to death."

Document 62: "Status of Women on the Rise in Mexico, but Challenges Persist." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 30 December 2004. Cable Number: Mexico 009688. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"In August 2003, [Amnesty International] reported that during the previous 10 years approximately 370 women had been killed in the Ciudad Juarez and Chihuahua areas. Many of these women were employed in maquiladoras, foreign owned assembly plants on the Mexican/US border. While two-thirds of these women were killed in connection with other assorted crimes, i.e. drug-related crimes or in incidents of domestic violence, about one-third of them fit a pattern of having been raped, disfigured and left in the desert for no obvious reason..."

Document 63: "Juarez Murders and State Police Indictments." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters. 12 January 2005. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 000461. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

The Attorney General of the State of Chihuahua, Patricia Gonzalez Rodriguez, "requested arrest warrants against five state officials for abuse of authority. She also requested administrative sanctions against 15 more for negligence and malfeasance with regard to the women's homicides cases in Ciudad Juarez." This cable also discusses the arrests of members of the Rebeldes gang in 1996 and the Toltecas (bus drivers) in 1999. "There is speculation that these convictions are convenient and have been timed to relieve pressure from the State government. While some of those convicted may be guilty of the crimes of which they are accused, others were proabably [sic] convenient suspects and while probably involved in criminal activity, were not necessarily involved in the murders for which they were convicted."

Document 64: "GOM Issues Third Report on Ciudad Juarez Murders." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 1 February 2005. Cable Number: Mexico 000798. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Lopez Urbina issued her third report in a ten-minute presentation. According to Ambassador Tony Garza, "Lopez Urbina's popularity with the victims' families has hit rock bottom. In her first report she was supported by the families for her willingness to cite public officials for negligence in their investigations of the cases. Now the perception among the families is that nothing has been done to take concrete action against the perpetrators of the crimes or negligent public officials. The families have moved beyond their initial satisfaction with Lopez Urbina going after negligent state officials and now want concrete results, in the form of arrests and/or convictions, which they do not believe they are getting. Given the emotional nature of the issue, flaws in the justice system, and doubt about guilt of suspects due to torture allegations, it is unlikely the families will ever be satisfied."

Document 65: "The Ciudad Juarez Murders - Symptom of a Larger Problem." Cable from US Embassy in Mexico City to State Department Headquarters. 11 February 2005. Cable Number: Mexico 001116. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

"The murders of women in Ciudad Juarez have garnered international attention. However, officials in the Attorney General's (PGR) office say there is more violence against women in Mexico City, the State of Mexico, and the State of Jalisco (Guadalajara). Media reports indicate (although statistics are not available) that more women are being murdered on the southern border with Guatemala. In CJ, many more men have been murdered during the same time span. Contacts in the PGR's Office for Human Rights said the ratio of men to women murdered since 1993 in CJ is 5 to 1...A general culture of violence against women that agistates the problem nationwide. In 2004, the Mexican statistical agency (INEGI) published a study saying 47 percent of women have suffered some form of domestic abuse in their lives."

Document 66: "Arrests in Ciudad Juarez Murders From Old Warrants." Cable from US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez to State Department Headquarters and US Embassy in Mexico City. 28 March 2005. Cable Number: Ciudad Juarez 003283. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2006-01-625) to Keith Yearman.

Unused arrest warrants, some ten-years old, were discovered during the Lopez Urbina investigation. Six of the fugitives had been located (one of whom was killed in a jail fight).

Document 67: "Mireille Roccatti." E-mail from Patricia Munoz, spokesperson for US Consulate General in Ciudad Juarez, to Consul General Donna M. Blair. 7 June 2005. Source: Freedom of Information Act release (2005-02-506) to Keith Yearman.

Lopez Urbina was ousted and replaced by Mireille Roccatti, a law professor and former director of the National Human Rights Commission. "The new prosecutor has promised to scrutinize the case files with a fresh pair of eyes, and promised to go after corrupt federal, state and local officials who may have been involved in the killings or at least let them remain unsolved because of corruption or negligence."